Literacy instruction

Release of responsibility

I do it

Teacher models:

  • I will show you how to do this
  • Watch me as I show you, listen carefully as I explain

Students – I am learning a new skills

We do it

Teacher encourages:

  • How can I help you – what sections do you need assistance with?
  • Let’s work this out together

Students – I have learnt a new literacy skill, but I still need some help with it’s application.  Students are practising and applying new knowledge, may rely on some scaffolding.

You do it

Teacher structures to allow for student learning

  • You have learned about…
  • Make sure you use this today, when you are…
  • Let me know if you need any help

Students – I know how to use this literacy skill and where and when I need to use it.  Skills are transferrable to other domains.





The Four Resources Model

Code breaker

I can decode the words in this passage

I can write the letters that correspond to the sounds I want

Meaning maker

I can work out what the text is about

I can create my own meaningful texts

Text user

I can understand the purpose of the text

I can create texts for different purposes

Text analyser

I can identify how this text works, and how it is making me feel, think or act.

Whole school literacy program

Must be:

  • balanced
  • explicit
  • integrated
  • systematic

The Four Resources model forms a starting point for discussion about these elements of literacy instruction ie: balanced and integrated.

A literacy program is balanced and integrated when teachers – develop students literacy skills across all four literacy resources (Freebody)

A literacy program is systematic and explicit when teachers – know their content, plan and sequence lessons to suit student needs, explicitly teach the skills and strategies that students need to complete assessment tasks.



Literacy for a Connected World

Students are now required to use current technology to participate fully in a connected world.  To do so they need to be able to use the following skills:

  • Be proficient in their use of technology
  • Build cross cultural connections – be able to work through disagreements and solve problems
  • Be able to organise, analyse/evaluate and sythesize information from various sources
  • Be aware of accuracy and bias
  • Be good digital citizens

To adequately prepare students educators need to consider the following in preparing comprehensive student learning experiences.


  • Technological knowledge: how to use platforms to use in an educational setting
  • Technological content knowledge: how content is influenced by technology, ie reading online, writing twitter feeds
  • Technological pedagogical knowledge: how to use technologies in teaching and learning
  • Technological pedagogical content knowledge: how to synthesize all the above in designing learning experiences.

Reading, writing and publishing today

  1.  Accessing and curating infomormation – search ‘curation tools’ – November learning
  2.  Creating content – cloud based and collaborative applications eg Google docs
  3. Sharing content – publishing and presenting eg Blogging, Quadblogging (global links)

Networked learning – Good digital citizens:

  • I can search effectively
  • I can identify credible online resources
  • I can evaluate and reflect critically on information
  • I respect the intellectual property of others
  • I use appropriate licensing conventions if necessary eg Creative Commons
  • I communicate effectively depending on the audience
  • I maintain a positive online reputation
  • I can identify and respond appropriately to online risks
  • I implement precautions for online security


  • Use audacity
  • Skype an author
  • Compare digital texts and print material on the same topic
  • Create TED talks
  • Explore mind maps
  • Self publish – via wikispaces or on a LMS
  • Source: Capacity Building K-12: Ontario Literacy

Reluctant readers

Online snippets…

Suggested books for reluctant readers
Mike finished Carl Deuker’s “High Heat,” about a crisis in the life of a high school baseball player, in a week. Technically it was beyond his reading ability, but my introduction, a compelling plot and main character, his curiosity, and baseball enticed him into a fictional world and held him. When I circulated among the readers in his class to confer with them about their books, he could tell me what was happening and what he thought so far. He was comprehending. That was all I needed to know.

Then he was on the lookout for the next book on the list he kept of titles that intrigued him. The genres included realistic fiction written for young adults, fantasy, free-verse novels, journalism (like “Friday Night Lights”), memoirs (“The Glass Castle” was a favorite), and horror (lots of Stephen King).

Why books
And they need actual books, not electronic devices that store books. Real books don’t require electricity or batteries. They survive rapid changes in technology and digital storage. While my students did experiment with e-readers and Kindles, all of them reverted to paper books. They said they missed the sense of geography they enjoy with a real book, where they’re aware of how many pages the author has left to resolve the plot, and when they can flip back with ease to clear up a confusion. They remember more of what they read—and even experience healthier sleep patterns—when they curl up at night with a real book instead of a bright screen.
And they enjoy richer social lives. The covers of books function as badges that students bring with them to class. Without them, children miss out on the camaraderie—the questions, advice, opinions, and literary gossip—that develops within a community of book lovers. It’s hard to reap the social benefits of reading when everyone is carrying around a grey screen.


Analysing naplan data:

Copy and paste from item analysis
Delete excess columns
Keep columns:
Item number
Answer key
Correct national
Correct State
Correct group
Add filter across the top
HOME – Merge and centre
Add 1 to text rows
Add a filter across top of text rows
Click on Row H
Use Sort and Filter – Custom sort
Expand the selection
Custom list
Add 1

SORT – Column H


Notes for using the data:

Compare the school mean to state mean – How do we compare?

Look at school and student growth to identify trends in specific groups

Is student growth stronger in some achievement areas than otehrs – does this reflect school resources or teacher expertise?

Look at school results for each test item – select Difference from State on the Item analysis screeen.  Sort and identify differences between the percentage of students in the school who answered questions correctly compared to State.  What items are more than 10% variance?

Access and investigate learning strategies that are directly linked to the skills and knowledges assessed.

Look at students in each performance band – Have students in the top bands been identified in school assessments?

Is new information being revealed?  What are the implications for class programs?

Explore results by looking at individual student responses – Are there patterns in student errors?  What are the implications for teachers/

Analyse the Naplan data to determine and plan for responsive literacy instruction.